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中考“补全对话”的命题特点与解题方法_英语论文
作者:论文网    更新:2018-12-04    来源:论文网    栏目:小学英语教学论文

 


 广东深圳  李启焕

《九年义务教育全日制初级中学英语教学大纲(修订版)》的附录中列有30个项目的日常交际用语。目前在初中毕业会考和升学考试中主要通过听力测试题、单项选择题和补全对话题来考查学生运用日常交际用语的能力。本文主要谈谈补全对话题的命题特点与解题方法

 一、命题特点

  1、一题一景,注重交际。补全对话题的内容一般都与教学大纲中所列日常交际项目有关。如问路、购物、打电话等。这一题型与其说是考察学生运用书面语言能力,不如说是考查学生运用口头语言的能力。即考查学生能否在不同的文化背景中,在不同的场合,对待不同的事情,按照英美人的文化习俗,用地道的英语作恰如其分的表达。

2、有“选(择)”有“填(充)”,形式多样。补全对话就是根据所提供的情景和对话内容补全所缺部分。可分为客观性选择填空式的补全对话和主观性限制性填词或句子式的补全对话两大类。常见题型有以下几种:

第一种是选择合适的句子。

例一:根据对话内容,选择方框中适当的句子,使对话完整、通顺。

(Mike comes to see Dr White. W: Dr White; M: Mike)

W:  1

M: Well, doctor. It’s my eyes. I can’t see clearly.

W:  2

M: since last week, I think.

W: Let me have a look. Oh, Mike, I guess you are working too hardthese days and taking less care of your eyes.

M:  3 What should I do then?

W: Well, when you feel tired, just stop working andcome out to enjoy a short rest. Remember,

 never go to bed too late and don’t read in bed.

M:  4

W: sure, Mike.

M:  5 Thank you very much.

A.  Do you think that will help?

B.  That’s true.

C.  You are wrong.

D.  What’s thetrouble, Mike?

E.  How long have you had the problem?

F.  Good idea!

G.  All right, doctor. I’ll tryit

 

Key:1.D  2.E  3.B 4.A  5.G

                    

第二种是填写合适的单词。

例二:每空填一词。将答案写在答卷上。

Helen is an Americangirl. She meets Paul for the first time at school. Paul is new in her class.

Helen: So you arePaul. I’m Helen. Niceto meet you.

Paul: Nice to meet you, too, Helen. I’m sorry I can speak only a little  1 .

Helen: But I thinkyou are speaking quite well.did your family live before you came toAmerica?

Paul:In Japan. We had lived there 3I was five. But we’re Korean.

Helen: Do your familyspeak Korean or Japanese?

Paul: Both. But I don’t speak Korean as well  4 I speakJapanese.

Helen: Do you make  5 when youspeak a new language(语言)?

Paul: Yes, very often. But I don’t  6 .That’s the way ofleaning.

    Helen:Do you understand our teacher in class?

  Paul: Yes, I do. Although her pronunciation(发音) is quite  7 from myEnglish teacher’s

      inJapan.

  Helen: Your old teachermust speak British English. The differences in spoken English 8 

     AmericanEnglish and British Englishgreat. But most ofthe, people from the two

     countriesdon’t have any  10 in understanding each other.

Key:1. English  2. Where  3. since 4. as 5. mistakes 6.care(mind)

  7. different  8. between 9. are 10. trouble (difficulty)

                       

第三种是填写合适的句子。

例三: 根据对话内容,在每小题的空白处写出一个完整的句子,使对话意思完整。

  A:    (1)

  B: Yes. I’m going to buy a new dress. I wantsomething smart(漂亮的). I wantto wear it in the evening.

  A: I see.    (2)

  B: Size eight or nine.

  A:    (3)It’s very smart.

  B: Sorry, I don’t really like the colour very much.Have you got any other colour?

  A: Oh, yes. We’ve got blue, white and brown ones.

  B: Can I have a look at thewhite one? That looks great.

  A: Yes, please. Here youare.

  B: Thank you. It looksnice.   (4)

  A: Certainly. This way,please.

   (In thechanging room a few minutes later)

  A: Does it fit (适合) you?

  B: Yes, it does. I like itvery much.    (5)

    Here’s the money.

  A: Thank you, good-bye.

Key: 1.Can I help you? 2. What size do you want (wear),please? (or What size are you?)

   3. How about this (blue) one? 4. Can I tryit on? 5. I’ ll take it.

                   

二、解题方法

第一步,审题。 审题的目的是明确要求。要弄清楚是选择答案还是写出答案。是填单词还是填句子或补全句子。补全句子时是限定每空填一个单词还是可以填几个单词。要注意对话部分前有无中文或英文的背景提示。如例二的要求是每空填一个单词,而例三则要求每空填一个完整的句子。例一和例三在对话部分前有提示。从提示中可以得知对话者的身份,从而可以推测出对话的话题。

第二步,浏览。这一步是了解情景。从某种意义上讲,离开了情景,就不能很好地补全对话。通过浏览便知对话的大体内容及情景。这样会有助于启迪思维。补全对话总体上是控制性的,考生只能在特定的情景中,使用适当的词语或句子,或按一定的模式选择组句,进行应答或填空。但也有开放性试题,即答案有可能不止一个。通过浏览上面三个对话,可知例一是看医生;例二是几个外国小朋友谈语言学习;例三是购物。

第三步,作答。在了解对话的情景之后,要身临其景,把自己作为对话中的一方,切身体验一下该如何进行交际。要重视语篇的整体理解,切不可孤立地就句解句。要联系上下文,通盘考虑,使问答或叙述都能符合所设定的情景,并合乎逻辑。如:例一中的第3空,根据 “What should I do then?” 可 以看出Mike认为医生说得对,故选B而不选C。第4空是要填写当Mike听了医生的建议后所表达的话语。如果孤立地看,则可填 “Good idea!”,但从下文医生的肯定答语可以看出要选A。例二中Paul是朝鲜人,5岁时随父母到日本,后来到了美国。根据提示,Helen是个美国女孩。当她用英语向Paul打招呼时,Paul表示歉意是因为他只能讲一点点英语,故第一空填English。例三中的A是售货员。当他(她)和顾客B打招呼和交谈之后,已知B想买一件8号或9号的连衣裙,这时就应拿出或指向顾客想买的衣服发问,因此第3空填 “How about this one?”。第4空填 “Can I try it on?”,这是当顾客看准了自己所要买的衣服时要求试穿时的常用语。在试穿后,顾客认为合身并表示非常喜欢,在交款之前应表示愿意买下,所以第5空填 “I’ll take it.”。

第四步,检查。作答后,一定要仔细默读整篇对话,要从语感上体会对话是否连贯,合情合理。所填词汇或句子有无拼写、语法及用词错误等。如单复数问题,例二中第5空应填mistakes而不能填mistake;第9空应填are而不能填is。又如大小写问题,例三中的5个答案开头都要大写等。

 

Exercises

I. 根据对对话内容,选择选择方框中适当的句子填空,使对话完整、通顺。

    A:Excuse me, 1 

    B:Go down this road, and turn rightat the second turning,then turn right at the third turning.

      You can see it on your left.

    A: How far is it?

    B: 2 .I think you’d better take a bus.

    A: 3 ?

    B:The No.109 bus.

    A: 4 ?

    B:It’s over there,near the school gate.

    A: 5 ?

    B:Get off at the third stop and there you are.

    A:Thank you very much!

    B:You’re welcome.

A.  Where is thebus stop?

B.  What’syourtrouble, sue?

C.  Have youever been to the school?

D.  Where must Iget off?

E.  About tenminutes’ walk.

F.  Which busshall I take?

G.  Where is thepost office?

 

Ⅱ. 补全对话,每空一个单词。

  Ken: I’ve looked for my dictionaryeverywhere, but I can’t  1 it. I need it for my homework.

    Have you seen it, Sue?

  Sue:  2 alwayslosing things. You should take care of your things. I think you lent it to

    someone and he forgot to  3 it back to you.

  Ken: No, I didn’t, but you have reminded me ofsomething. I  4  it to Tom’s house last

    night and I forgot to bring it back. Can you lend me yours?

  Sue: Well, I’m  5 I can’t lend it to you,  6 Ineed it for my homework, too. But  7

   worry about it. When I have  8 it, I will lend it to you.

  Ken: Thanks a lot. I’ll  9 for you to finishyours. There is some music I want to listen to

    onthe radio now.  10 you work while I’m listening to the radio?.

  Sue: It doesn’t matter. Don’t worry about that.

Ⅲ. 根据对话内容,在空白处填入恰当的句子,使对话完整。

  Mr White: Hello!

  Betty:  Hello. Is that Mr White?

  Mr White: Yes,  1 ?

  Betty:  his is Betty, Mr White 2?

  Mr White: Tom? Yes, 3, please.

  Betty:  Ok.

  Mr. White: Sorry, 4.

  Betty:  Could you give him amessage?

  Mr White: Yes, of course.

  Betty:  Please tell him I’ll phone again before nine o’clock tomorrow morning.

  Mr White: OK. 5. Bye.

  Betty:  Thanks. Bye.

 

Key:

  I. 1.G 2.E 3.F 4.A 5.D

  II. 1.find 2.You’re 3.give/send 4.took5.afraid/sorry 6.because 7.don’t 8.finished 9.wait 10.Can

  Ⅲ. 1. Who’s that (speaking)?

   2. May/could Ispeak to Tom?

   3. Hold on/Just a moment/ Wait for a moment.

   4. he’s out / he’s not in/ he’s not at home.

   5. I’ll tell him (about it).


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